Про Україну

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Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2 (233,062 sq mi), and is the second-largest country in Europe. Ukraine has a population of about 44.7 million, making it the eighth-most populous country in Europe. Its capital and largest city is Kyiv.


Map of Ukraine

General information of Ukraine
Neighbors
Ukraine borders with: European Union (Slovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania), Moldova, Belarus, Russia.

Capital and the largest cities
Kyiv (or Kiev, according to Russian transliteration) is the capital of Ukraine. It is also its biggest city by the surface (about 800 square km) and by the population (approximately 3,5 million of people). Other important cities are: Kharkiv, Dnipro, Odesa, Donetsk, L’viv.

Ethnic composition
Ukrainians – 77,8%, Russians – 17,3%, Crimean Tatar – 0,5%, others – 4,9%

Name
The name “Ukraine” (UKRAINA) comes from the Slavic word “kraj”, meaning “land” or “border”, or also “homeland”, “region, country”. The oldest mention of the word “Ukraina” dates back to the year 1187 (Kyiv Chronicle).

Flag
Ukrainian flag is composed of two equal horizontal bands of blue and yellow colors symbolizing blue sky and yellow wheat fields.


Flag of Ukraine
Coat of arms
It is called Tryzub (or Trident), featuring the same colors found on the Ukrainian flag – a blue shield with a gold trident on it. As it is dating from very old times, there are several explications of its meaning.


Coat of arms

Anthem
For every Ukrainian citizen these words are very important: “Shche ne vmerly Ukrainy ni slava ni volya” (“The glory and the freedom of Ukraine has not yet died”). From these words, Ukrainian national anthem starts. Lyrics are written by Pavlo Chubynsky, and the musicis composed by Mykhailo Verbytsky.

State language
The only state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian, being of Indo-European family, Slavic group of languages.

Religion
According to the independent survey 75,2 % of the respondents believe in God and 22 % said they did not believe in God. 37,4 % said that they attended church on regular basis. Most of Ukrainian believers are Orthodox Christians (or Eastern Orthodox), there are also Greek Catholics, Roman Catholics, Muslims, Jews.

Government
Ukraine is a unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic. Ukraine has its Parliament (the Supreme Rada), the Government (the Cabinet of Ministers), the President. Administrative division: Ukraine consists of 24 regions (oblast) and Crimea. Ukraine exists as a sovereign and independent state since 1991.

Geography
Situated in the center of Europe, Ukraine is the largest wholly European country and the second largest country in Europe (after the European part of Russia, before France). The landscape of Ukraine consists mostly of fertile plains (or steppes) and plateaus, crossed by rivers such as the Dnieper, or Dnipro (2200 km, 1204 km within Ukraine), Seversky Donets, Dniester and the Southern Buh. Territory of Ukraine is washed by the Black and Azov Seas. There are Carpathians (western side) and Crimean (southern side) Mountains.

Climate
Ukraine has a mostly temperate climate, with hot summer, cold winter (snowfalls are common), mild spring and autumn.

National holidays
Ukrainians like holidays and celebrations, but only some of them are nonworking days. They are: January, 1 – New Year Day; January, 7 – Orthodox Christmas; Easter; May, 1-2 – Labor Day;  May,8-9 – Memory Day and Victory Day; Trinity; June, 28 – Constitution Day; August, 24 – Independence Day; October, 14 – Defender of Ukraine Day. 

Money
The currency of Ukraine is Ukrainian hryvnia (UAH), introduced in 1996. It is named after a measure of weight used in medieval Ukraine. It might have indicated something valuable worn around the neck, usually made of silver or gold. The hryvnia is subdivided into 100 kopiyok (coins).The banknotes are 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50, 100, 200 and 500 denominations. 

Visas
Citizens of the following 5 countries can enter Ukraine without a visa for an indefinite stay: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova, Uzbekistan. Holders of passports of EU, Canada, US, Turkey and other countries can enter Ukraine without a visa for a stay up to 90 days within a 180-day period.

History

The territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC.


Gold Scythian pectoral, or neckpiece, from a royal kurgan in Pokrov, dated to the fourth century BC

During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus’ forming the basis of Ukrainian identity.


Kyiv 12 th century

Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested, ruled and divided by a variety of powers, including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was eventually split between Poland and the Russian Empire.

Cossack Council

In the aftermath of the Russian Revolution, a Ukrainian national movement for self-determination emerged, and the internationally recognized Ukrainian People’s Republic was declared on 23 June 1917. After World War II the western part of Ukraine merged into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, and the whole country became a part of the Soviet Union. Ukraine gained its independence in 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

Ukraine today

Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state; it formed a limited military partnership with Russia and other CIS countries while also establishing a partnership with NATO in 1994. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative, executive and judicial branches. The country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), the GUAM organization.

Economy
Ukraine produces nearly all types of transportation vehicles and spacecraft. Antonov airplanes and KrAZ trucks are exported to many countries.


Antonov 225 “Mriia”

The majority of Ukrainian exports are marketed to the European Union and CIS. Since independence, Ukraine has maintained its own space agency, the National Space Agency of Ukraine (NSAU). Ukraine became an active participant in scientific space exploration and remote sensing missions. Between 1991 and 2007, Ukraine has launched six self-made satellites and 101 launch vehicles, and continues to design spacecraft.


Successful Launch in Ukraine

Growing sectors of the Ukrainian economy include the information technology (IT) market. Ukraine ranked fourth in the world in number of certified IT professionals after the United States, India and Russia.
Because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world’s largest grain exporters.
Ukraine has one of the most equal income distribution as measured by the Gini index and Palma ratio.

Transport
In total, Ukrainian paved roads stretch for 164,732 kilometers (102,360 mi). Major routes, marked with the letter ‘M’ for ‘International, extend nationwide and connect all major cities of Ukraine, and provide cross-border routes to the country’s neighbors. Rail transport in Ukraine connects all major urban areas, port facilities and industrial centers with neighboring countries. The total amount of railroad track in Ukraine extends for 22,473 kilometers (13,964 mi), of which 9,250 kilometers (5,750 mi) was electrified in the 2000s. Currently the state has a monopoly on the provision of passenger rail transport, and all trains, other than those with cooperation of other foreign companies on international routes, are operated by its company ‘Ukrzaliznytsia.
Transport by air is developing quickly, with a visa-free programme for EU nationals and citizens of a number of other Western nations, the nation’s aviation sector is handling a significantly increased number of travelers.


Kyiv Boryspil international airport

Kyiv Boryspil is the county’s largest international airport; it has three main passenger terminals and is the base for the country’s flag carrier, Ukraine International Airlines. Other large airports in the country include those in Kharkiv, Lviv, Dnipro and Odessa. Ukraine has a number of airlines including Windrose Airlines, SkyUp, Azur Air Ukraine, and other. Antonov Airlines, a subsidiary of the Antonov Aerospace Design Bureau is the only operator of the world’s largest fixed wing aircraft, the An-225.


Odessa international sea airport

International maritime travel is mainly provided through the Port of Odessa, from where ferries sail regularly to Istanbul, Varna and Haifa.

You can find more detailed information about Ukraine here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ukraine
https://mfa.gov.ua/en/about-ukraine/general-facts
https://www.infoplease.com/world/countries/ukraine